The universal application of the T&V model of agricultural extension in more than 50 countries is one of agricultural development’s best known failures. The approach worked well in places where it was originally developed, but proved inappropriate almost everywhere else. In the September 2008 edition of the LINK News Bulletin, Rasheed Sulaiman V. and Andy Hall worry that an apparently successful extension innovation piloted in India is set to suffer a similar fate.
Developed in India, ATMA — Agricultural Technology Management Agency — was part of a large World Bank-supported project aimed at strengthening and reforming the agricultural research and extension system. The central idea of the ATMA model was that it would act as a mechanism to bring together the different agencies involved in extension in a district.
- Insufficient support
- Mismatch with diversity of application contexts
- Lack of local ownership
- Capacity and institutional constraints